Full Text: Judicial Reform in China (7)


15:04, April 17, 2013

II. Maintaining Social Fairness and Justice

Maintaining social fairness and justice is the value to be enforced in China's judicial reform. China aims its judicial reform at strengthening its judicial organs' capability in maintaining social justice by optimizing the structure of the judicial organs and allocation of their functions and power, standardizing judicial acts, improving judicial proceedings, and enhancing judicial democracy and legal supervision.

1. Optimizing the Allocation of Judicial Functions and Power

The rationalization and optimization of judicial functions and power has a direct bearing on the materialization of justice. China, starting from removing the institutional barriers that affect judicial impartiality, has enhanced internal checks in judicial organs, clarified the work relationship between the people's courts and the people's procuratorates at different levels, standardized and improved retrial procedures, and established consistent law-enforcement system and judicial authentication management system. These reforms have improved judicial organs' capacity for maintaining fairness, helped to safeguard social equity and justice, and fulfilled the public's new expectations and demands for the judicial system in maintaining justice.

Separation of filing, trial and execution of cases. The people's courts at all levels have established case-filing tribunals, execution bureaus and other departments in addition to the original criminal, civil and administrative adjudication tribunals. Case-filing, trial and execution are handled separately by different offices, which act independently and exercise a mutual-check function to ensure the fair exercise of adjudicative and execution power.

Standardizing the retrial of remanded cases and designated cases. To correct the irregular practices in the procedures regarding retrial of remanded cases and designated cases, the Civil Procedure Law amended in 2012 revised and improved the procedure for the retrial of remanded cases. The new provisions clearly state that after the original people's court makes its ruling in the retrial of a remanded case, if the litigant makes an appeal, the people's court of second instance shall not send the case back for a retrial. The Criminal Procedure Law, amended in 2012, articulates that a criminal case designated for retrial by a lower-level people's court shall be tried by one other than the original court in principle.

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